பக்கம் எண் :

104THE PRIMARY CLASSICAL LANGUAGE OF THE WORLD

monotheism, and the upper class, mainly composed of sages and ascetics, adopting formless monotheism.

     Formless monotheism consisted in conceiving God as Formless, Nameless (i.e. destitute of proper name or names), Everlasting, Absolute, All-Merciful, Omniscient, Omnipotent, and Omnipresent, and workshipping Him in mind and spirit under the appellations Kadavu˜, the Transcendent, and ‘IŠaivan’, the Omnipresent. The spiritual movement started during the mediaeval period by the Mystic School called Sittar in Tamil (Skt. Siddhas), an order of advanced ascetics of whom eighteen have been counted, was but an attempt at revival of the pre-Aryan Tamil monotheism which was not encouraged by the Sanskritists, as it would be economically disadvantageous to them.

21. The Origin of Caste-System

     The Indian congenital caste-system, the most arbitrary and irrational on the face of the globe, peculiar to this subcontinent and highly prejudicial to the progress of the non-Brahmin society of India, is erroneously considered by Western Scholars to have been based upon the principle of division of labour.

     The Grammar of love-poetry called Agapporu˜ in Tamil required the broad classification of Tamilian society into four classes, viz., Anda-ar (sages and scholars), Arasar (kings and chieftains), Va-igar (merchants and traders) and V„˜ƒlar (landlords and cultivators) purely on the occupational basis, all occupations having been reduced under four heads viz., Learning, Protection, Trade and Agriculture, the last including all kinds of industries and works of manual labour; for the purpose of assigning reasons for temporary separations of the hero from the heroine in married life, according to his profession or business.

     The Vedic Brahmins borrowed this system of fourfold division of society from the Tamil literature, and adapted it to their own purposes and renamed the divisions Brƒhma-a, Katriya, Vaisya and Sdra, respectively.

     The Aryan system of caste-division differed from its Tamil original in the following respects: