P10341 Thakkayaagap Parani

    This lesson discusses the various aspects of ‘Thakkayaagap Parani’, one of the most famous literary texts pertaining to Parani Ilakkiyam. ‘Parani’ is one of the 96 minor literary genres collectively known as ‘Sittrilakkiyam’ in Tamil. The earliest examples of Parani Ilakkiyam are traced to the 11th century A.D.

    ‘Kalingathup Parani’, ‘Thakkayaagap Parani’, Iranyavathaip Parani’, Kanjavathaip Parani’ and ‘Mohavathaip Parani’ are some popular Parani texts. A Parani celebrates the valour and heroism of a King or a soldier who has won a great battle after slaying a 1000 elephants. An interesting feature of Parani is, that it is named not after the victorious, but after the vanquished or the place of the battle.

    ‘Thakkayaagap Parani’ was composed by Ottakkoothar, a renowned poet of the 12th century A.D. A celebrated court poet of the Chola kingdom, Ottakkoothar wrote ‘Thakkayaaagap Parani’ at the behest of the Chola King Raja Rajan II.

    ‘Thakkayaagap Parani’ sings the praise of Lord Shiva, also hailed as Lord Veera Badra. It recounts an ancient purana associated with the cult of Lord Shiva. The protagonist or ‘Paattudaithalaivan’ is Lord Shiva. Goddess Parvathi is his consort. As legend has it, Thakkan, the father of Parvathi, once insulted Lord Shiva by not inviting him to a Yaaga, he was about to perform. An enraged Shiva, destroyed the Yaaga by slaying Thakkan and the devas who assisted him. ‘Thakkayaagap Parani’ celebrates this heroic deed of Lord Shiva.

    ‘Thakkayaagap Parani’ comprises 815 verses called ‘thaazhisaigal’. These are set in a metre called ‘Kural thaazhisai’. The text begins with an invocatory verse - ie. ‘Kaapu Cheyyul’- dedicated to Lord Vairava in Seerkaazhi. The various parts of a Parani are called ‘Parani Uruppugal’. There are 11 Parani Uruppugal in ‘Thakkayaagap Parani’. They are ‘Kadavul Vaazhthu’, ‘Kadai Thirappu’, ‘Kaadu Paadiyathu’, ‘Deviyai Paadiyathu’, ‘Peygalai Paadiyathu’, ‘Koyilai Paadiyathu’, ‘Pey Muraippaadu’, ‘Kaalikku Kooli Kooriyathu’, ‘Koozh Aduthalum Iduthalum’, ‘Kalamgaattiyathu’ and ‘Vaazhthu’.

    ‘Thakkayaagap Parani’ is a ‘purap porul’ text, as it deals with one of the major themes pertaining to Puram poetry, namely war. It contains various aspects of the purat tinai. This lesson explains two of these aspects - ‘Thumbai Aaaduthal’ and ‘Padai Vazhakku’.

    ‘Thakkayaagap Parani’ is considered a valuable resource book for historians as it abounds in historical details pertaining to the Chola period. Since Ottakkoothar served as the court poet with 3 successive Chola kings, he records several interesting facts about their glorious reign. ‘Thakkayaagap Parani’ also alludes to several puranas

    ‘Thakkayaagap Parani’ has several literary merits. Ottakkoothar was popularly known as ‘Kavi Raatchathar’, on account of his exceptional poetic talents. One finds ample evidence of his poetic brilliance in this work. ‘Thakkayaagap Parani’ is noted for its vivid descriptions and arresting figures of speech. The lesson discusses 2 of the figures of speech used by Ottakkoothar, namely, ‘Ilporul Uvamai Ani’ and ‘Niral Nirai Ani’. Ottakkothar often resorted to poetic exaggerations and hyperboles. There are several examples of Ottakkothar’s fondness for poetic exaggerations in ‘Thakkayaagap Parani’