பாடம் - 4
c01214 - இன்னா நாற்பதும் இனியவை நாற்பதும்

These two books present an interesting study. இன்னா நாற்பது speaks of things which are harmful both to the individual and the society. இனியவை நாற்பது comes out with a list of items beneficial to the mankind. Thus, these two books are complementary to one another. Each book contains 40 poems and thus justifies the title.

இன்னா நாற்பது was authored by கபிலர். He is different from his name-sake of the Sangam age. From the invocatory verse we learn that the author treated all religions equally. இன்னா நாற்பது has 40 poems in வெண்பா metre.

People would like to do things that would make them happy. Unless one knows what is good, one will not be able to do it and be happy. இன்னா நாற்பது provides a list of things which should be avoided, for they are harmful; such items numbering 164, are shown in the book.

இன்னா நாற்பது speaks of abstinence, generosity, poverty, evil people, education, friendship, relatives etc. The book states clearly what is harmful in each item. The things that would harm the king, the ascetic, the common man and the society are also mentioned.

இனியவை நாற்பது, on the other hand, names the things that would bring happiness to us. மதுரைத் தமிழாசிரியர் மகனார் பூதஞ்சேந்தனார் is the author of இனியவை நாற்பது. His name was சேந்தன் and his father was பூதன். The author invokes சிவபெருமான், திருமால் and பிரமன் in the introductory verse. He belonged to the 2nd century A.D.

இனியவை நாற்பது is in வெண்பா metre. It speaks of things that would make us happy, if followed. Poems 1, 3, 4 and 5 carry four thoughts each. The rest mention only three ideas each.

Only good things make a man happy. So this book speaks of things, which would beget happiness to the kings, ascetics, the house-holder and others.

Moral life is insisted upon. The author says that keeping oneself away from the forbidden things is itself a happy thing.

இன்னா நாற்பது and இனியவை நாற்பது speak of the code of conduct in the negative and the affirmative ways, respectively.