D06133 - LESSON - 3
Tamil of the Tolkappiam age - Morphology
Explaining the morphology of Tamil of Tholkappiars times, this lesson presents his analysis of word. The functioning of differential inflexions of Tamil words at the time of Tholkappiar is also illustrated. The structure and classification of Tamil verbs, prepositions and adjectives form the contents of this lesson.
The word grammar, nouns, differentials, verbs and adjectives and prepositions are dealt with in five units.
Nouns are the first group of words in all languages including Tamil. Presenting the grammar of nouns Tholkappiar defines them as referants to an object, indicating the status, gender, number and place, accepting certain differential markers as inflexions and not showing the time except in verbal nouns called Vinayilanaiyum Peyar. Status is of three kinds, high, low and common as Uyarthinai, Akrinai and Viravuthinai.
Vettrumai is foremost in the grammar of Tamil nouns. Identifying eight such differentials Tholkappiar lists and illustrates them as in the case of grammar of other classical languages.
Verbs do not accept differential markers but refer to time unlike nouns. Dividing Tamil verbs into Vinai and Kurippu later renamed as Therinilaivinai and Kurippu Vinai. Verbs are also classified according to Thinai.
Other words attached to nouns and verbs are Idaichol and Urichol. Idaichorkal differentiate the meaning of nouns and verbs. Urichorkal occuring before nouns and verbs function as their attributes as in adjectives and adverbs in English.
On learning this lesson you will understand the speciality of word grammar presented by Tholkappiar.