C02114 : சார்பு எழுத்துகள்Allied letters are described and classified in this lesson.Vowel-consonant combines, (உயிர் மெய் எழுத்துகள்), the special letter (ஆய்தம்), the elongation of vowels and consonants (உயிரளபெடை and ஒற்றள பெடை) the reduction of back and front vowels (குற்றியலிகரம்) and the shortening of ஓள, ஐ, மு, and ஃ are the lesson units.
There are 216 vowel-consonant combines. Obtained by combining each of the 12 vowels with each of the 18 consonants.
The elongation of a vowel letter called உயிரளபெடை. pertains to long vowels only. That is, in poetic forms a long vowel is lengthened beyond its natural time with the help of its short form. The letters ஐ and ஒள having no short form will be longtherned by இ and உ respectively. Four difference types of such vowel elongation are illustrated in this lesson. The elongation of consonants occurs only in the case of ங்,ஞ்,ன்,ந்,ம்,ன,வ்,ய்,ல் and ள் besides the special letter ஃ Thus the time taken to pronounce any of these letters will be doubled by its presence in double.
The shortening of உகரம் at the end of a word reduces the time into its half. Conditions under which this occurs are specified in the lesson. There are six types of குற்றியலுகரம்.
The occurrence of உகரம் under conditions other than those specified for குற்றியலுகரம் is called முற்றியலுகரம்.
Similarly, the shortening of இகரம் is of two types as separate word (தனிமொழிக் குற்றியலிகரம்) as in கேண்மியா and as connective words (புணர்மொழிக் குற்றியலிகரம்) as in நாடியாது derived from நாடு+யாது.
The shortening of ஐகாரம் can occur at the beginning, the middle and the end of a word. ஐப்பசி, இறைவன் and நகை are pronounced with shorter than the normal ஐ.
The two time units (மாத்திரை)normally taken by ஒளகாரம் can be reduced to one unit when the letter occurs in the beginning. ஒளவையார் is an example of ஒளகாரக் குறுக்கம்.
மகரக் குறுக்கம் can also occur in separate words and in combination of words as in உண்ம் and தரும் வளவன்.
ஆய்தக் குறுக்கம் occurs when a ward ending in ல், or ள் is followed by another word beginning with த.
Thus. in this lesson one can understand groups of allied letters, situations of their occurrence, graphic form of vowel -consonant combines and sound units pertaining to different சார்பு எழுத்துகள்.